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The Art of Fiction

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In this classic essay which originally appeared in his 1888 collection Partial Portraits, Henry James argues against rigid proscriptions on the novelist's choice of subject and method of treatment. He maintains that the widest possible freedom in content and approach will help ensure narrative fiction's continued vitality.


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In this classic essay which originally appeared in his 1888 collection Partial Portraits, Henry James argues against rigid proscriptions on the novelist's choice of subject and method of treatment. He maintains that the widest possible freedom in content and approach will help ensure narrative fiction's continued vitality.

30 review for The Art of Fiction

  1. 4 out of 5

    Glenn Russell

    “Criticism talks a good deal of nonsense, but even its nonsense is a useful force. It keeps the question of art before the world, insists upon its importance. ” ― Henry James The short essay Criticism, the focus of my review, is part of this collection which includes The Art of Fiction, The New Novel, and individual essays on Balzac, Trollope, Flaubert, Zola and Emerson. The reason for my choice should be obvious to anyone reading this since so much of what we do on this international internet sit “Criticism talks a good deal of nonsense, but even its nonsense is a useful force. It keeps the question of art before the world, insists upon its importance. ” ― Henry James The short essay Criticism, the focus of my review, is part of this collection which includes The Art of Fiction, The New Novel, and individual essays on Balzac, Trollope, Flaubert, Zola and Emerson. The reason for my choice should be obvious to anyone reading this since so much of what we do on this international internet site is write reviews. Below are a number of Henry James quote from the essay along with my more personalized comments: “If literary criticism may be said to flourish among us at all, it certainly flourishes immensely, for it flows through the periodical press like a river that has burst its dikes.” --------- With the advent of international internet sites such as this one, a thousand times truer now than back in 1893 when Henry James wrote these words. Even as recently as the 1980s, if a reader wished to read a review of a particular book, perhaps one, two or three reviews could be located in newspapers or magazines. But nowadays with a few clicks, dozens of reviews are available. For an avid reader and lover of books and book reviews, our brave new 21st century world is a literary paradise. “What strikes the observer above all, in such an affluence, is the unexpected proportion the discourse uttered bears to the objects discoursed of – the paucity of examples, of illustrations and productions, and the deluge of doctrine suspended in the void; the profusion of talk and the contraction of experiment, of what one may call literary conduct.” ----------- Sounds like Henry James much prefers individual book reviews chock-full of examples and quotes rather than literary theory regardless of the theoretical slant. My preference also. I recall scanning shelves and shelves of books of literary theory when at Powell’s in downtown Portland. I looked through dozens of volumes written by such as Roland Barthes, Terry Eagleton and Northrop Frye. But, darn, I couldn't find even one book that interested me. I had to admit theorizing about literature leaves me cold. When it comes to novels and short stories, what I enjoy and find most helpful are well-written, insightful book reviews. “It is a gift inestimably precious and beautiful, therefore, so far from thinking that it passes overmuch from hand to hand, one knows that one has only to stand by the counter an hour to see that business is done with baser coin.” ---------- Like any other literary form - novels, short stories, plays, poetry – writing good book reviews takes not only technical proficiency and lots of practice, but a love of the craft. And as Henry James notes, an outstanding review has an undeniable beauty and charm. “Yet not only do I not question in literature the high utility of criticism, but I should be tempted to say that the part it plays may be the supremely beneficent one when it proceeds from deep sources, from the efficient combination of experience and perception.” ----------- When James says “proceeds from deep sources” I take this to mean when a reviewer is widely read and has carefully read and reread the book under review, their reflections and insights, if articulated clearly, carry a measure of weight and are worthy of serious consideration. “In this light one sees the critic as the real helper of the artist, a torch-bearing outrider, the interpreter, the brother. The more the tune is noted and the direction observed the more we shall enjoy the convenience of a critical literature.” ---------- One especial great value a reviewer can provide to the reading community – write a review of an overlooked or under reviewed book. “To lend himself, to project himself and steep himself, to feel and feel till he understands, and to understand so well that he can say, to have perception at the pitch of passion and expression as embracing as the air, to be infinitely curious and incorrigibly patient, and yet plastic and inflammable and determinable, stooping to conquer and serving to direct – these are fine chances for an active mind, chances to add the idea of independent beauty to the conception of success.” ---------- Henry James expresses so elegantly how a reviewer is wise to be as open and receptive as possible when reading, even if that book happens to be of a type generally not read by the reviewer. “Just in proportion as he is sentient and restless, just in proportion as he reacts and reciprocates and penetrates, is the critic a valuable instrument; for in literature assuredly criticism is the critic, just as art is the artist; it being assuredly the artist who invented art and the critic who invented criticism, and not the other way round.” ---------- This James quote really underscores how each review reflects the reviewer as much as the author – so much of one’s experience with literature is a matter of individual taste. And this dynamic is a prime reason why new reviews of even a well reviewed book can still contain great value. “That of the critic, in literature, is connected doubly, for he deals with life at second-hand as well as at first; that is, he deals with the experience of others, which resolves into his own, and not of those invented and selected others with whom the novelist makes comfortable terms, but with the uncompromising swarm of authors, the clamorous children of history.” ---------- Henry James appreciates how a dedicated book reviewer can make a lifetime commitment to reading books and writing about books. No need to write in any other form; writing book reviews is quite enough. I agree completely! "Life is too short for bad books. And you can quote me on that!" - Glenn Russell

  2. 5 out of 5

    Jowayria Rahal

    I must admit that I would have never ever read Henry James' article nor that of Mr Beason if it wasn't for my Novel class that I'm taking this year . Okay , both articles are magnificent , to say the least . But I , for one , thought that James' response article ( essay) was more articulate , straightforward and ,of course, genuine . Henry James made two major contributions which exerted a powerful influence on the theory of the novel : 1- He managed to establish the novel as a worthy object of I must admit that I would have never ever read Henry James' article nor that of Mr Beason if it wasn't for my Novel class that I'm taking this year . Okay , both articles are magnificent , to say the least . But I , for one , thought that James' response article ( essay) was more articulate , straightforward and ,of course, genuine . Henry James made two major contributions which exerted a powerful influence on the theory of the novel : 1- He managed to establish the novel as a worthy object of critical attention ( literary criticism) by lifting it to the level of art . 2- He helped to initiate debates and discussions about methods , narrative structures , moral thinking and interpretation . Throughout his article , James defined fiction as being one of the fine arts . The word 'fine' does not describe the quality of the work in question , but rather the righteousness of the field / discipline . For him , fiction -just like arts - is a craft ; some are good at it while others are simply not . He then went on to raise a question that has always been debated on by literary critics ; that of the criteria which make of a novel a "good" work of fiction . Some , he said , believe that a good novel is a representation of virtues through pious and aspiring characters ,others argue that it all depends on "the happy endings " ,while others regard the movements and actions to embody the required criteria that make of a novel a good one . But James explained that it is a mistake to say so definitely beforehand what sort of an affair the good novel is , because , after all , a novel is in its broadest definition a personal impression of life . And That is exactly why , I believe , James pleaded for the liberty of the artist to shape the form which best suits his impression of life . The artist , according to James , should be allowed the freedom in the choice of subject and method but he must assume his responsability of making the two fuse to serve as the vehicle of expression of his intentions . I absolutely loved the last part of the article wherein James gave pieces of advice to a young to-be novelist . They spoke to me , not that I'll ever be a novelist or anything but they were just beautifully written . And yes , now I just can't wait to start reading one of James' novels " The Turn Of The Screw " .

  3. 5 out of 5

    Inna

    http://www.wsu.edu/~campbelld/amlit/a... "The old evangelical hostility to the novel, which was as explicit as it was narrow, and which regarded it as little less favourable to our immortal part than a stage-play, was in reality far less insulting. The only reason for the existence of a novel is that it does compete with life. " "The only obligation to which in advance we may hold a novel without incurring the accusation of being arbitrary, is that it be interesting. That general responsibility re http://www.wsu.edu/~campbelld/amlit/a... "The old evangelical hostility to the novel, which was as explicit as it was narrow, and which regarded it as little less favourable to our immortal part than a stage-play, was in reality far less insulting. The only reason for the existence of a novel is that it does compete with life. " "The only obligation to which in advance we may hold a novel without incurring the accusation of being arbitrary, is that it be interesting. That general responsibility rests upon it, but it is the only one I can think of. The ways in which it is at liberty to accomplish this result (of interesting us) strike me as innumerable and such as can only suffer from being marked out, or fenced in, by prescription. They are as various as the temperament of man, and they are successful in proportion as they reveal a particular mind, different from others. A novel is in its broadest definition a personal impression of life; that, to begin with, constitutes its value, which is greater or less according to the intensity of the impression. But there will be no intensity at all, and therefore no value, unless there is freedom to feel and say."

  4. 5 out of 5

    Amanda Alexandre

    DISCLAIMER: I copied these notes for personal reasons only: I use GR to keep track of my notes, since I don't trust my Kobo and notebooks are impractical. I know I am a cheap bastard and don't deserve any like for it. so, this was NOT written by me! Henry James's“The Art of Fiction” Why is it revolutionary? 1. Choice of subject belongs to the artist without restriction. We must grant the artist his subject, his idea, his donnée; our criticism is applied only to what he makes of it. (561) 2. Conscious DISCLAIMER: I copied these notes for personal reasons only: I use GR to keep track of my notes, since I don't trust my Kobo and notebooks are impractical. I know I am a cheap bastard and don't deserve any like for it. so, this was NOT written by me! Henry James's“The Art of Fiction” Why is it revolutionary? 1. Choice of subject belongs to the artist without restriction. We must grant the artist his subject, his idea, his donnée; our criticism is applied only to what he makes of it. (561) 2. Conscious artistry and treatment of the subject is the key. Art is essentially selection. (563). Questions of art are questions (in the widest sense) of execution. (655) 3. Organic structure is important. A novel is a living thing, all one and continuous, like any other organism, and in proportion as it lives will be found, I think, that in each of the parts there is something of each of the other parts. (560) 4. Artistry, not morality, should be the criterion. "Bad" novels and "good" novels are a matter of taste, not morality or choice of subject matter. Nothing, of course, will ever take the place of the good old fashion of "liking" a work or not liking it. (562). There are bad novels and good novels, as there are bad pictures and good pictures; but that is the only distinction in which I can see any meaning. (560) 5. Faithfulness to life (realism) is the important factor. The only reason for the existence of a novel is that it does attempt to represent life. (554). The air of reality (solidity of specification) seems to me to be the supreme virtue of a novel (559). 6. The expertise of the writer, like that of the painter, depends upon an artistic sensibility and openness to impressions. Experience is never limited, and it is never complete; it is an immense sensibility, a kind of huge spiderweb of the finest silk threads suspended in the chamber of consciousness. (559). A novel is in its broadest definition a personal, a direct impression of life. (557) It goes without saying that you will not write a good novel unless you possess the sense of reality; but it will be difficult to give you a recipe for calling that sense into being. (558). “Try to be one of the people on whom nothing is lost!” (559)

  5. 5 out of 5

    Oliviu Craznic

    Essential quotes: https://www.goodreads.com/author_blog...

  6. 5 out of 5

    Faye

    I read this in a collection of Henry James essays on writing and writers. I really enjoyed The Art of Fiction itself, as it is very encouraging to budding young writers like myself, and his articles on Turgenev were incredibly interesting, but the essay The New Novel put me off Henry James forever. How dare he criticize Joseph Conrad for demanding too much of the "common reader's" concentration?! Henry James demands so much concentration from his readers that I had to reread half his sentences a I read this in a collection of Henry James essays on writing and writers. I really enjoyed The Art of Fiction itself, as it is very encouraging to budding young writers like myself, and his articles on Turgenev were incredibly interesting, but the essay The New Novel put me off Henry James forever. How dare he criticize Joseph Conrad for demanding too much of the "common reader's" concentration?! Henry James demands so much concentration from his readers that I had to reread half his sentences and sometimes even full pages just to figure out what he was trying to say! Sometimes I never did figure it out, and just kept going anyway. And he had the audacity to complain about Joseph Conrad?! My beloved Joseph Conrad, who knew how to write an exciting tale in which more fascinating things happened in each chapter than EVER happened in any one of Henry James' stories?? I'd liked James' short stories, but after reading that, I am officially not a fan.

  7. 4 out of 5

    Tiffany

    Oh Henry, you sure were vexed by Mr. Besant and his ideas, weren't you? I need to read the Besant piece now so I am clear on the basis of his arguments. Intriguing piece.

  8. 4 out of 5

    Ashlee Draper Galyean

    I want to read this essay with people and discuss it and pick it apart and put it back together. Essentially, I want to go back to school. Sigh. Anyway, I was drawn to this essay because I have been questioning myself the worth of fiction, constantly rationing my intake and being careful to "nourish" myself with more worthy literary endeavors. If I were to partake of a discussion on it, I already have my talking points: -Beauty vs art -fiction vs "reality" -morality being true to life, not avoiding I want to read this essay with people and discuss it and pick it apart and put it back together. Essentially, I want to go back to school. Sigh. Anyway, I was drawn to this essay because I have been questioning myself the worth of fiction, constantly rationing my intake and being careful to "nourish" myself with more worthy literary endeavors. If I were to partake of a discussion on it, I already have my talking points: -Beauty vs art -fiction vs "reality" -morality being true to life, not avoiding the things we have agreed not to speak of -art is only an extension of the artist--it can only be as deep, as true, as moral, as beautiful as -the artist is -the only thing a novel must be is interesting I conclude in James' own words and by so doing, give myself license to be free in my writing :) "But the only condition that I can think of attaching to the composition of the novel is, as I have already said, that it be interesting. This freedom is a splendid privilege, and the first lesson of the young novelist is to learn to be worthy of it. "Enjoy it as it deserves," I should say to him; "take possession of it, explore it to its utmost extent, reveal it, rejoice in it. All life belongs to you, and don't listen either to those who would shut you up into corners of it and tell you that it is only here and there that art inhabits, or to those who would persuade you that this heavenly messenger wings her way outside of life altogether, breathing a superfine air and turning away her head from the truth of things. There is no impression of life, no manner of seeing it and feeling it, to which the plan of the novelist may not offer a place; you have only to remember that talents so dissimilar as those of Alexandre Dumas and Jane Austen, Charles Dickens and Gustave Flaubert, have worked in this field with equal glory."

  9. 4 out of 5

    Helen

    An essay in which James analyzes and expands upon the lecture by Walter Besant with the same title (The Art of Fiction). The main emphasis seemed to be whether or not it was necessary for a novel to have an edifying moral agenda behind it, and whether or not a novel requires a plot or story at all. An interesting primary source as to the mind set of Victorian authors and readers.

  10. 4 out of 5

    Anne Oftedahl

    Read for my Creative Voice 1 class Henry James has some really good point about the way we view fiction, but I will definitely have to reread this come time closer to my essay... I mean, it was written ages ago, so it's a very slow and "heavy" read

  11. 5 out of 5

    H

    -solid illusion of reality = cornerstone -experience = sensitive intake of existence -"atmosphere of the mind" -quality of art = quality of producer's mind -sincerity. be worthy of fiction

  12. 5 out of 5

    Emily Dybdahl

    This essay is highly entertaining in that it is an argument against a pamphlet by the same title, written by a guy named Walter Besant. Henry James describes what Besant got right, but mostly presents his objections. He does so in a hilarious way because he writes so beautifully and descriptively, but with a bite of sarcasm. I wonder if Besant ever got the chance to counter? Towards the middle of the essay, James begins an analogy between a writer and a painter, which he continues to the end of t This essay is highly entertaining in that it is an argument against a pamphlet by the same title, written by a guy named Walter Besant. Henry James describes what Besant got right, but mostly presents his objections. He does so in a hilarious way because he writes so beautifully and descriptively, but with a bite of sarcasm. I wonder if Besant ever got the chance to counter? Towards the middle of the essay, James begins an analogy between a writer and a painter, which he continues to the end of the essay. He says that the two types of artist have similar degrees of freedom but that painting would seem to allow for more teaching up front before sending a novice painter off on his or her own, whereas writing as an art wouldn't have those beginning lessons just due to the mechanics of the art and a novice writer just kind of has to start without guidelines (at least that's the gist I got from what I read). I would add to James' analogy though, that learning to speak and write the language, and other introductory language and writing lessons, could be thought of as similar to the introductory painting lessons on technique (color mixing, brush strokes, etc.) and that his analogy is fine enough without his caveat. I enjoyed this passage: "There is a traditional difference between that which people know and that which they agree to admit that they know, that which they see and that which they speak of, that which they feel to be a part of life and that which they allow to enter into literature. There is the great difference, in short, between what they talk of in conversation and what they talk of in print." And I liked his conclusion, that the only rule he has for writing fiction, is that it be sincere.

  13. 5 out of 5

    George Spirakis

    Αρκετές φορές αναζητάς τον συγγραφέα στα κείμενά του. Τον ψάχνεις και επιμένεις. Είναι που τελικά αν κρυφτεί έχει τον τρόπο να σου χαρίσει τη ζωή κάπως καλύτερα. Στην αλλαγή επιπέδου πραγματικότητας και στα ποιοτικά άλματα, είναι ιδιαίτερα ενδιαφέρον να μπορείς να «διαβάζεις» την ίδια πένα σε διαφορετικού ύφους και είδους κείμενα. Συμβουλές και σκέψεις, αντιπαραθέσεις και απόψεις, έμμεσες και άμεσες αναφορές, πάντα όμως υπό το πρίσμα του συγγραφέα που αναζητά την εμπειρία, διαχειρίζεται τις λεπτομ Αρκετές φορές αναζητάς τον συγγραφέα στα κείμενά του. Τον ψάχνεις και επιμένεις. Είναι που τελικά αν κρυφτεί έχει τον τρόπο να σου χαρίσει τη ζωή κάπως καλύτερα. Στην αλλαγή επιπέδου πραγματικότητας και στα ποιοτικά άλματα, είναι ιδιαίτερα ενδιαφέρον να μπορείς να «διαβάζεις» την ίδια πένα σε διαφορετικού ύφους και είδους κείμενα. Συμβουλές και σκέψεις, αντιπαραθέσεις και απόψεις, έμμεσες και άμεσες αναφορές, πάντα όμως υπό το πρίσμα του συγγραφέα που αναζητά την εμπειρία, διαχειρίζεται τις λεπτομέρειες και εν τέλει βρίσκει την καλαισθησία και την επινοητικότητα να ακολουθήσει ένα και μοναδικό χρέος στο κέιμενό του: να είναι ενδιαφέρον. — Προσπάθησε να πιάσεις το ύφος της ίδιας της ζωής.

  14. 4 out of 5

    Micaela

    "...the only condition that I can think of attaching to the composition of the novel is, as I have already said, that it be sincere. This freedom is a splendid privilege, and the first lesson of the young novelist is to learn to be worthy of it. ... All life belongs to you... Do not think too much about optimism and pessimism; try and catch the colour of life itself."

  15. 5 out of 5

    Charlotte Stevenson

    An intriguing piece of academic writing surrounding ongoing questions such as what makes a novel valuable? Are novels valuable? And what do stories have to offer the world if they do not necessarily show exemplary human behaviour/realistic morals?

  16. 5 out of 5

    Juliana M

    4.5 With the exception of the elitist parts

  17. 4 out of 5

    Terry

    Love that Henry James thought Zola magnificent!!!

  18. 5 out of 5

    Kelly

    Boring

  19. 4 out of 5

    Manuel

    Long-winded and confusing, but with good points on art and how the novel fits into it. I think the novel has come a long way and I agree most with James' statement that it must be "organic".

  20. 5 out of 5

    Esther

    Henry James adviseert de jonge schrijver: "try to catch the color of life itself". Een schitterend essay over de mogelijkheden van de schrijver om iets te creëeren met impact.

  21. 5 out of 5

    Julián Pérez

    Henry James tiene una visión hermosa de lo que significa escribir, de la forma en que intentamos descubrir el mundo a través de lo que escribimos, de las formas con las que definimos y redefinimos nuestro mundo, nuestro diccionario de la vida. Explora las formas de la novela de forma minuciosa, dándose la libertad de glorificar o rechazar textos que a simple vista son semejantes pero que producto de su contexto, semántica y trasfondo se pueden convertir en cosas simples o simplonas. Una letra más, Henry James tiene una visión hermosa de lo que significa escribir, de la forma en que intentamos descubrir el mundo a través de lo que escribimos, de las formas con las que definimos y redefinimos nuestro mundo, nuestro diccionario de la vida. Explora las formas de la novela de forma minuciosa, dándose la libertad de glorificar o rechazar textos que a simple vista son semejantes pero que producto de su contexto, semántica y trasfondo se pueden convertir en cosas simples o simplonas. Una letra más, un párrafo menos, los pequeños detalles con los que nos obsesionamos quienes escribimos, que le dan sentido y significado a las horas de reflexión con amigos, editores, críticos y otros escritores. La magia de una letra con otra y otra, exploradas minuciosamente, para encontrar el secreto que en sus intersticios ocultan la verdadera historia, que como una revelación se convierte en novela.

  22. 4 out of 5

    L. No Last-Name

    Very interesting to read about what I take for granted, the art of fiction.

  23. 4 out of 5

    Jennifer

    This review was originally posted to Jen in Bookland The Art of Fiction is an essay responding to a lecture of on the same topic by Mr. Besant. It was an interesting read and really made me think more about novels and the writing process. James talks about defining a novel as art and what makes a novel "good". I agreed with a lot of his points, and I enjoyed reading his thoughts on novels as art. James really picks apart Besant's lecture, agreeing and disagreeing with the things he said and telli This review was originally posted to Jen in Bookland The Art of Fiction is an essay responding to a lecture of on the same topic by Mr. Besant. It was an interesting read and really made me think more about novels and the writing process. James talks about defining a novel as art and what makes a novel "good". I agreed with a lot of his points, and I enjoyed reading his thoughts on novels as art. James really picks apart Besant's lecture, agreeing and disagreeing with the things he said and telling us why. The best thing about it is James' rules for writing a novel. Make it interesting. Be true to reality. Experiment and see what happens. It seems so simple, but if I were to think of a good vs bad book I would say the bad ones lack in some of these areas. Though I might amend the second to be true to reality and the reality you create. "But the only condition that I can think of attaching to the composition of the novel is, as I have already said, that it be interesting" This is not something I would have read if not the the Rory Gilmore Challenge, but I am glad I did. Really a short, quick read but worth a look. You can find it online for free here.

  24. 5 out of 5

    Laura

    You may read online here. Published in Longman's Magazine 4 (September 1884), and reprinted in Partial Portraits (Macmillan, 1888).. Quotations: The only reason for the existence of a novel is that it does compete with life. Literature should be either instructive or amusing, and there is in many minds an impression that these artistic preoccupations, the search for form, contribute to neither end, interfere indeed with both. But there is as much difference as there ever was between a good novel an You may read online here. Published in Longman's Magazine 4 (September 1884), and reprinted in Partial Portraits (Macmillan, 1888).. Quotations: The only reason for the existence of a novel is that it does compete with life. Literature should be either instructive or amusing, and there is in many minds an impression that these artistic preoccupations, the search for form, contribute to neither end, interfere indeed with both. But there is as much difference as there ever was between a good novel and a bad one: the bad is swept, with all the daubed canvases and spoiled marble, into some unvisited limbo or infinite rubbish-yard, beneath the back-windows of the world, and the good subsists and emits its light and stimulates our desire for perfection. A novel is in its broadest definition a personal impression of life; that, to begin with, constitutes its value, which is greater or less according to the intensity of the impression. But there will be no intensity at all, and therefore no value, unless there is freedom to feel and say.

  25. 4 out of 5

    Larry Wang

    Was initially introduced to this dissertation in my American Literature class. There has always been arguments about what literature should do. One side, as shown in Dreiser's "True Art Speaks Plainly", advocates that literature should have a moral purpose and lead to social improvement. James gives a broader range of what literature should be; that is, just interesting. I definitely side with James' view as it does not exclude didactic literature, but simply claims that literature shouldn't hav Was initially introduced to this dissertation in my American Literature class. There has always been arguments about what literature should do. One side, as shown in Dreiser's "True Art Speaks Plainly", advocates that literature should have a moral purpose and lead to social improvement. James gives a broader range of what literature should be; that is, just interesting. I definitely side with James' view as it does not exclude didactic literature, but simply claims that literature shouldn't have to be didactic.

  26. 4 out of 5

    Nikkie Thomas

    The only reason for the existence of a novel is that it does attempt to represent life. The more I read of James the more convinced I am that he was a sensible man; able to dissect and look at things plainly. In this short essay he states that no rules should be applied to the writing of a novel. He asserts that the novel is the greatest of all the arts and rules and limitations would pervert it.

  27. 5 out of 5

    Antonio

    Walter Besant's original essay is superb. I found it an enjoyable and useful read. I found the response essay by Henry James a (mostly) annoying and rambling read. I highlighted a few sentences, but I feel too lazy to copy them here.

  28. 5 out of 5

    Amie

    This was excellent! I loved the author's descriptions and suggestions for fiction. I also enjoyed the examples from classic works given at the end. If you've ever considered writing fiction, read this first.

  29. 4 out of 5

    Maria Stanica

    4.5/5 stars

  30. 4 out of 5

    Paul Varner

    Don't call yourself a real novelist until you read this classic of fiction theory.

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